In Russia’s backyard of the Balkans, EU enlargement plans are back in focus

In Russia’s backyard of the Balkans, EU enlargement plans are back in focus


People maintain a banner and Ukrainian flags throughout a rally to mark the one-year anniversary of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2023 in Belgrade, Serbia. As half of the Western Balkans block ready for EU-membership, Serbia is caught in a geostrategic rivalry between its Western allies and Russia.

Vladimir Zivojinovic | Getty Images News | Getty Images

Davos, SWITZERLAND — As spiking geopolitical tensions thrust the European Union into the highlight, consideration has turned to the strategically necessary Western Balkans. But whether or not the neighboring area is prepared — and keen — to lastly make the steps wanted to hitch the union stays unclear.

The Western Balkans, comprised of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Serbia, signify a notable hole in the map of EU membership in southeastern Europe.

Though every has utilized for — and been granted — candidate or potential candidate member standing over the previous twenty years following the fall of the socialist federation of Yugoslavia in 1992, progress on accession has been usually sluggish.

“I see the European Union extra prepared for the Balkans than the Balkans for the European Union,” Miroslav Lajčák, EU Special Representative for the Belgrade-Pristina Dialogue and Western Balkans, advised CNBC final month.

Accession to the bloc is a rigorous and sometimes prolonged course of involving a number of phases of negotiations and reforms to make sure a candidate state meets the EU’s judicial, administrative and financial requirements.

Lajčák mentioned that nations in the Western Balkans, in the previous, had been hesitant to really interact in such reforms as a result of they “didn’t imagine in a real European future” — or that they might realistically meet the necessities.

But all that modified with the outbreak of battle on Europe’s doorstep in February 2022.

Ukraine and Moldova and Georgia introduced a contemporary vitality and dedication – one thing that was nearly misplaced in the Balkans.

Miroslav Lajčák

EU Special Representative for the Belgrade-Pristina Dialogue and Western Balkans

Within days of Russia’s invasion, Ukraine, neighboring Moldova and, quickly after, close by Georgia utilized for EU candidate standing. By late 2023, the EU launched accession talks with Ukraine and Moldova, and granted candidate standing to Georgia, including momentum to the European challenge and signaling renewed hope for different would-be members.

“Ukraine and Moldova and Georgia introduced a contemporary vitality and dedication – one thing that was nearly misplaced in the Balkans,” Lajčák mentioned. “Now, it’s extremely clear that the European Union is severe.”

Though Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia are exterior of the Western Balkans, constituting half of Europe’s former Eastern bloc, Lajčák mentioned that progress ought to drive the area ahead in accession talks. Negotiations are at the moment underway in each nation besides Kosovo, a possible candidate member, however Lajčák famous that that openness might not stay indefinitely.

“The practice is right here and the practice will depart the station. If they do not board, they are going to miss an enormous historic alternative,” he mentioned.

An ambiance of EU enlargement

The EU’s accelerated enlargement comes as the bloc seeks to strengthen its assertiveness given Russia’s battle in Ukraine and a fracturing of the U.S.-led world order. Lajčák mentioned this has triggered the ambiance in Brussels to turn out to be “extra political” than in the previous.

“Before, it was at all times mentioned that enlargement means increasing the space the place European values and guidelines apply. Now, it is seen extra geopolitically,” Lajčák mentioned.

“It makes us stronger, it makes us larger, it makes our market larger. So it is much less idealistic and extra pragmatic.”

It can be economically insane [for European countries] to look elsewhere.

Miroslav Lajčák

EU Special Representative for the Belgrade-Pristina Dialogue and Western Balkans

The heightened political emphasis has made overseas coverage alignment extra crucial than ever to the accession course of, with the EU’s unity already vexed by the intransigence of current member Hungary. That might show a sticking level for sure potential members.

Serbia, for example — the largest nation in the area — has been vocal in condemning Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, however has resisted imposing sanctions on the nation. Indeed, Belgrade has usually clashed with Western allies on overseas coverage points, and continues to take care of shut ties with Russia and China.

Meanwhile, each Moscow and Beijing have sought to strengthen their financial and political affect in the Western Balkans in a possible bid to destabilize the wider area.

Still, Lajčák insisted that neither nation might compete with Brussels in phrases of its funding and commerce providing. “The credible enlargement course of is the greatest reply to any third-party’s interference,” Lajčák mentioned. “It can be economically insane [for European countries] to look elsewhere.”



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